Tag: Communism

THE LAST TOWER

220px-Sand_from_Gobi_Desert

(DOODIS: “I See You”)

Ladies and gentlemen, welcome to the official viewpoint of the amazing Last Tower project!

Join with me in a celebration of the greatest, the most awesome… the only perpetual capital and home of the human race for all future generations- a structure our ancestors could only dream of!

From this most impressive vantage point you can see the entire structure as it nears completion.

Beginning a survey of our Glorious home, I would have you notice the tower’s foundation, entirely and uniquely visible from the surface, consisting of only the finest quality silica or, to those less educated among you, sand.

The tower itself is just a little over one hundred and two miles high. Its thirteen point seven billion bricks are made of one hundred percent lie-stone. Yes sir, I said “lie-stone”- the only material we need to bake the very toughest bricks known to man-thoroughly tested and refined to withstand the most determined onslaught of our Enemy.

Why is the stone black? Well sir, the stone is completely black because it’s designed to reflect no light whatsoever: scientists and designers have successfully removed all traces of God-contamination.

Windows? Yes sir—I was just coming to that…

Yes sir, there are windows-seven billion of them! You may not be able to see them from here: our technicians are still working on the lighting system.  Anyway, the windows, like the bricks, are formed with lie-stone, in order to minimize reflectivity, and to filter out all harmful radiation emitted from our Enemy’s Celestial City.  We don’t want to lose any power because of Him now sir, do we?

The tower has exactly seven billion luxury living quarters. Each room-aa-mansion is fitted with the latest in language translation technology, so that everyone will instantly hear and understand the pronouncements of Our Glorious Leader. And, in a spirit of true unity and reciprocation, every word uttered by humanity will be instantly collected, translated, scanned and scrutinized in our Control Room. In this way, any attempt to cause dissention or variation from the accepted norm, and any failure to pay, can be dealt with swiftly and decisively.

Expressing the incredible generosity of Our Glorious Leader, the Tower has been built with one living quarter for each person, because as he has made clear, no two people should live together for any length of time:

“Family breeds insanity; family perpetuates ignorance.”

In this way, total unity and happiness of mankind will be achieved.

Priests of the Great Prophet Darwin are already escorting residents to their place of termination-I’m sorry-I mean their terminal, from where they will be led to their very own home.

You can just see the structure at the very top of the tower. This is our newly-designed Multi-Mega-Waste telescope, built to detect even the faintest of messages from the depths of space, while simultaneously filtering out all messages and interference transmitted at short range by our Enemy.

The noise sir? No-do not cover your ears sir! The noise you can hear is the Tower’s sound system, audible in every single room, playing Justin Bieber’s latest creation, “Oh baby, yeah baby”.

At the heart of the Tower-in an entirely secure area-is the Control Room, where Our Glorious Leader will reside and rule, and around it, as you can see, Our Leader’s Ten Commandments adorn the central part of the tower in one-mile high letters. Now let’s all say the Greatest Commandment, our Leader’s dictum:

You shall love Your Glorious Leader with all your heart, and with all your mind, and with all your body, and with all your soul, and him only shall you serve…”

(Copyright © Nick Fisher 15th February 2014)

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WAR, RELIGION AND ATHEISM 6: MAO’S CHINA

INTRODUCTION TO PART 6

Wishing to make this post a lot shorter than previous parts of my series, I’ve had to exclude a lot of interesting detail… 

My intention in this series is to debunk the notion that religion causes most or all war, and instead to show that war comes from the inner nature of man. One of the out-workings of that nature comes via atheistic philosophy.

In previous parts I discussed Marxism’s fundamental doctrine of atheism, along with its followers’  lust for violence during the 2oth century. I also looked at Hitler, who was not a Marxist, and his view that it was his job to give “Nature” a big helping hand in “her” administration of  the survival of the fittest.  Atheism and evolutionism were vital foundations in the philosophies of these men:

“COMMUNISM BEGINS FROM THE OUTSET WITH ATHEISM” – Karl Marx

“They (communists) openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution…”- Karl Marx

 “Evolution prepares for revolution and creates the ground for it; revolution consummates the process of evolution and facilitates its further activity” – Joseph Stalin (FROM PART I OF J. V. Stalin ANARCHISM or SOCIALISM?)

Today’s atheist wishes us to think that  atheism has nothing to do with war or atrocities, whereas anyone remotely professing or being identified with Christianity and yet committing crimes or atrocities obviously does so because of what he believes. What you believe only leads to bad actions if you’re a Christian or if you’re religious. Hmm.. Seems like a pretty fair judgment, eh?

No, the reality is that many who have accepted the rock-to-ape-to- man propaganda have married their atheism with ideologies based on the need for violence and the eradication of their perceived enemies. The “survival of the fittest” mentality has been a bedrock argument for mass murder, as I have documented in previous articles. If you are nothing more than an ape in clothes, and no more valuable than a rat, or “just a foetus”, then you can be wiped out and swept away. This was the attitude of men like Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Hitler and Mao, atheists who between them presided over the slaughtering of many millions of people. While it’s true that nobody has fought a war in the name of atheism alone, atheism plus ideology equals tyranny and terror.

Even if their atheism did not influence their actions (and it did), these men were NOT religious! This alone is a significant point in my argument.

All Marxist leaders, and Hitler and his Nazis, have declared that the state is to be considered the supreme entity among men: the individual is of little importance. I say that if we are not “endowed by our creator with inalienable rights”, then we are at the mercy of the state, who will decide what our rights will be, and what is right or wrong.  We will be serving the state, when the state should be there to serve its citizens.

Mao Zedong believed that he should decide what the rights of his people would and would not be:

“At no time and in no circumstances should a communist place his personal interests first: he should subordinate them to the interests of the nation and of the masses” From “The Role of the Chinese Communist Party in the National War” (October 1938) Selected Works, Vol.II p. 198.  

MAO AND THE CHINESE COMMUNISTS, AND WAR

R. J. Rummel, in his book “China’s Bloody Century” has estimated that the Chinese communists murdered almost thirty-nine million of its own citizens in the 20th Century 1.

http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NOTE2.HTM

As an atheist, was Mao peace loving and benevolent? His own words express the opposite:

“A revolution is not a dinner party…A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another” From “Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan” (March 1927), Selected works, Vol. 1, p. 28.

“According to the Marxist theory of the state, the army is the chief component of state power…The guns of the Russian Communist Party created socialism…it is only by the power of the gun that the working class and the labouring masses can defeat the armed bourgoisie and landlords; in this sense we may say that only with guns can the whole world be transformed”  From ‘Problems of War and Strategy” (November 6, 1938), Selected Works, Vol. II, p. 225.

MAO ZEDONG AND MARXISM

In all sayings attributed to Mao, he regarded his movement as “Marxist”. Remember that Marx was an atheist and an evolutionist, Marx said that “Communism begins at the outest with atheism”, and that Marx encouraged “the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions” . Mao associated himself openly with Marxism:

“It is necessary to master Marxist theory and apply it, master it for the sole purpose of applying it” From ‘Rectify the Party’s style of Work” (Feb. 1, 1942) Selected Works Vol. III, p 38.

“If there is to be a revolution, there must be a revolutionary party. Without a revolutionary party built on the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory and the Marxist-Leninist style, it is impossible to lead the working class and the broad masses of the people  in defeating imperialism and its running dogs” From Revolutionary Forces of the World Unite, Fight against Imperialist Aggression!” (November 1948), Selected Works, Vol. IV, p. 248.

MAO, EVOLUTION AND ATHEISM

Most people are not aware (because it is conveniently swept under the carpet) that Darwin’s writings were so filled with racist ramblings that they would be rejected immediately if written now. You can almost match some of his phrases to those of Hitler:

“At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace the savage races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphous apes… will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his nearest allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilized state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as a baboon, instead of as now between the negro or Australian and the gorilla.”2.

Mao Zedong has said:

The foundation of Chinese Socialism rests on Darwin and the theory of evolution. Mao Zedong (K. Mehnert, Kampf um Mao’s Erbe, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977)

“Our God is none other than the masses of the Chinese people” From “The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountains” (June 11, 1945), Selected Works, Vol. III, p. 322.

“The Marxist philosophy of dialectical materialism has two outstanding characteristics. One is its class nature: it openly avows that dialectical materialism is in the service of the proleteriat…” From “On Practice” (July 1937), Selected Works, Vol.I p. 297.

“Idealism and metaphysics are the easiest thing in the world, because people can talk as much nonsense as they like without basing it on objective reality…” Intro. Note to “Material on the Hu Feng Counter-Revolutionary Clique” May 1955).

If Mao is correct about metaphysics, then we had better forget all we learned from a multitude of believers such as Copernicus, Isaac Newton, Joseph Mendel, Galileo, William Wilberforce, Abraham Lincoln and Wernher Von Braun.

Mao and Chinese Communism is widely known to be based on belief in evolution. As an example, Riazatt Butt wrote in Britain’s “Guardian”:

“Mao also recognised the importance of Darwinian theory. It legitimised his nation. In 1957 the chairman discussed China in Darwinist terms: ‘Socialism, in the ideological struggle, now enjoys all the conditions to triumph as the fittest.’

“That same year Mao also invoked Darwin to justify his “Hundred Flowers Campaign”of openness to invite new ideas for advancement of the communist nation, writing: ‘Correct and good things have often at first been looked upon not as fragrant flowers but as poisonous weeds; Copernicus’s theory of the solar system and Darwin’s theory of evolution were once dismissed as erroneous and had to win out over bitter opposition.’ “. (Riazat Butt in Alexandria, Guardian.co.uk Monday 16 November 2009)

Fenggang Yang, in his book “Religion in China”, in a chapter titled “Chinese Marxist Atheism and its Policy Implications”, said:

“In the ideological lexicon of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Marxist-Leninist atheism is a fundamental doctrine” 3.

Yang explains that since 1921, when the Chinese Communist Party was established, Chinese atheism has taken two major forms: enlightenment atheism, which views atheist propaganda as a necessary weapon to fight religion, and militant atheism, which considers that political forces are necessary to control and elliminate religion. There is a third form emerging recently, self-designated as “mild atheism”.

Yang says that Mao singlehandedly launched the Great Proleterian Cultural Revolution to purge the “bourgeoise elements” believed to be permeating the party and society at large, and he notes  that:

“militant atheism preceeded the eradication policy during the Cultural Revolution beginning in 1966” 4.

NEXT WEEK:

You’re probably all screaming “enough-we’ve got the point!” I agree, so look for something completely different…

NOTES

1 R. J. Rummel China’s Bloody Century (Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, N.J., 1991)

2 Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 2nd edition, New York, A L. Burt Co., 1874, p. 178

3 Fenggang Yang Religion In China: Survival and Revival Under Communist Rule (Oxford University Press, 2012) p. 45.

4 Ibid, p. 48.

PART 4 OF WAR, RELIGION AND ATHEISM: STALIN

“COMMUNISM BEGINS AT THE OUTSET WITH ATHEISM”….Karl Marx

My intention in this series is to debunk the notion that religion causes most or all war, and instead to show that war comes from the inner nature of man. One of the out-workings of that nature comes via atheistic philosophy.

220px-Stalin's_Mug_Shot

I’ve shown that Marx and Engels were atheists who happily found Darwin’s theory to compliment their own view of historical, social evolution. This marriage of ideas helped to shape their entire view of history and their prescription for humanity’s “happiness” for the future, which necessitated “the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions” 1.

I discussed in Part 2  how Lenin, Trotsky and the other Bolshevik Party leaders in Russia held evolution and atheism to be a central plank in their ideology, and how they wished to rid their nation and ultimately their world of religion. Religion, to the Marxist, was nothing more than a “drug” being used by the ruling classes to dope the masses while they used and abused them.

The Bolsheviks’ tools and methods agoinst the ruling classes (which in practice affected all levels of society) were mass violence and terror: a war against their own people, which may well have extended to the rest of us, had the West not stood up to communism…

STALIN AND MARXISM

Stalin, nick-named “Soso”  by his mother, was sent to seminary. Edvard Radzinsky, whose book covers many of the incredible atrocities of Stalin’s reign, records that when Stalin was at school the seminaries were a hotbed of revolutionaries who had adopted Marxist teachings. They saw it as their duty to enthrone a new Messiah, that is, the World Proleteriat” 2. Radzinsky writes that before long Stalin was often absent from seminary to run Marxist discussion groups 3. Stalin himself said that he was a supporter of Marxism from the age of fifteen 4. His official biography records that he was expelled because of his interest in Marxism, and his efforts at spreading Marxist propaganda. Soon out of school, he was involved in revolutionary activities 5. By 1905 he was participating in and oranizing many major terrorist acts 6.

As I noted in part 2, Stalin did make what he wanted of Marxism, but his beliefs were essentially the same as those of Marx, and he certainly regarded himself as a Marxist, as did the other Party members. Roy Medvedev writes that by 1932, Stalin “aspired to the leading position in the sphere of Marxist theory” 7.

THE RISE OF STALIN

Stalin was attracted to Lenin’s ideas by 1901, long before meeting him, and he favored Lenin’s tactic of a tightly knit group of highly committed individuals who were prepared to use whatever methods were necessary to bring about the kind of world they wanted. This tactic had in turn been taught by a man admired among revolutionaries – publicist Peter Tchachev. Another, Mikhai Bukunin, who wrote one of the books handed to young Soso, called “The Revolutionary’s Catechism”, said that revolutionaries “must aggravate the miseries of the common people”, so as to exhaust their patience and incite them to rebel. 8.

As a young  man, Soso renamed himself Koba, after a revolutionary character he read about who became his hero. The book echoed a Bukaninist maxim; “Let us unite with the savage world of the violent criminal – the only revolutionary in Russia” 9.

For years Stalin was constantly on the run from the police. His activities included bank robberies and many murders in order to raise funds for the Party 10.

9150353-stalin--russian-dictator

 

TAKING OVER FROM LENIN

In April 1922, five years after the October Revolution, Lenin appointed Stalin as the general secretary of the secretariat. Stalin was already on two committees, the Politburo and the Orgburo. The ailing Lenin was nervous about allowing Stalin to take over the party leadership, but saw no better candidate. Upon Lenin’s death, Stalin did not automatically take over, but already enjoyed considerable popularity in the Party. Stalin associated himself with the cult of Leninism which had been growing, as a way of increasing his own stature. He was a smooth talker and politician. By this time there was already a mutual distrust among the leadership, particularly between Stalin and Trotsky. After a final show down in October of 1927, several prominent members were expelled, including Trotsky and Kamenev, who were sent to distant parts of the country. By the Fifteenth Party Congress in December of 1927, Stalin was seen as the Party’s unchallenged leader 11. It was also at this congress that Stalin spoke about abandoning the New Economic Policy for a far more communistic Five Year Plan.

Stalin’s image continued to grow during his reign of terror, so that he became a cult figure in his time: in the 1930s he began to encouraged his own deification. He got to the point of considering himself as the god of a socialist religion 12.

STALIN, EVOLUTION AND ATHEISM – (STALIN THE APE-MAN)

Stalin’s daughter Svetlana, said “My father never had any feeling for religion….who had never for one moment believed in the spirit of God…” She also said that unbelief and hypocrisy among the clergy had a lasting effect on her father 13.

A book published in Moscow entitled, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin , originally designed to set him in a positive light, relates several personal testimonies which are very revealing:

“At a very early age, while still a pupil in the ecclesiastical school, Comrade Stalin developed a critical mind and revolutionary sentiments. He began to read Darwin and became an atheist. G. Glurdjidze, a boyhood friend of Stalin’s, relates:
“I began to speak of God, Joseph heard me out, and after a moment’s silence, said:
“‘You know, they are fooling us, there is no God. . . .’
“I was astonished at these words, I had never heard anything like it before.
“‘How can you say such things, Soso?’ I exclaimed.
“‘I’ll lend you a book to read; it will show you that the world and all living things are quite different from what you imagine, and all this talk about God is sheer nonsense,’ Joseph said.
“‘What book is that?’ I enquired.
“‘Darwin. You must read it,’ Joseph impressed on me”

A few pages later, another individual–also reflecting on Stalin’s youthful pursuits, added the following:

“. . .in order to disabuse the minds of our seminary students of the myth that the world was created in six days, we had to acquaint ourselves with the geological origin and age of the earth, and be able to prove them in argument; we had to familiarize ourselves with Darwin’s teachings.” 14

Notice that the last phrase was not “we had to prepare the evidence to show them”

Sahelanthropus may have inhabited the gallery forest

Some atheists are claiming that Stalin was not a believer in Darwinism. However, Stalin was an evolutionist, and only favored certain aspects of one theory of evolution over Darwin’s. As David Klinghoffer writes,

“Stalin’s version of evolution derived from the thread in that philosophical and scientific tradition that in turn came down from the earlier French evolutionist, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). Larmarck argued that characteristics acquired by an organism in its lifetime could be passed down to offspring, making environment of equal importance to heredity. (Modern evolutionary theory excludes this idea.) Hitler’s more strictly Darwinian methods, obsessed with heredity, accordingly emphasized eugenics and murder to rid society of genetic undesirables, while Stalin’s approach emphasized manipulation of the social environment, isolating deviants, sending adults and children possessing minds “diseased” as judged by anti-Soviet thinking off to the Gulag so as not to corrupt healthy minds. The subtle difference hardly mattered to the millions who were murdered in pursuit of an evolutionary nightmare…”

“This (regard for Lamarck) was not a rejection of Darwinism per se but simply of the evolutionary mechanism that Darwin personally made famous, natural selection.”

http://www.evolutionnews.org/2009/01/darwinism_communism_part_ii_1015931.html

STALIN: EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION GO HAND IN HAND

apeman

Stalin was in agreement with Marx, Engels, Lenin and Trotsky (see parts 2 and 3) when he made the link between biological evolution and their view of historical evolution:

“Evolution prepares for revolution and creates the ground for it; revolution consummates the process of evolution and facilitates its further activity” 15.

Further, Stalin says:

Marxism is not only the theory of socialism, it is an integral world outlook, a philosophical system, from which Marx ‘s proletarian socialism logically follows. This philosophical system is called dialectical materialism. Hence, to expound Marxism means to expound also dialectical materialism. Why is this system called dialectical materialism? Because its method is dialectical, and its theory is materialistic 16.

Stalin expounds on the dialectical method, then in Part II “The Materialist Theory” he introduces our old friend, the ape-man into the equation:

“What is the materialist theory?”

“Everything in the world changes, everything in life develops, but how do these changes take place and in what form does this development proceed? We know, for example, that the earth was once an incandescent, fiery mass; then it gradually cooled, plants and animals appeared, the development of the animal kingdom was followed by the appearance of a certain species of ape, and all this was followed by the appearance of man. This, broadly speaking, is the way nature developed”.

Stalin then waxes eloquent, and imagines the poor ape-man having to stare at the ground for many thousands of years (as we know all apes do, of course), until he had the good sense to start straightening up. This, according to Stalin, is what led to conscious thought:

“If the ape had always walked on all fours, if it had never stood upright, its descendant — man — would not have been able freely to use his lungs and vocal chords and, therefore, would not have been able to speak…” (or blow up balloons)…” and that would have fundamentally retarded the development of his consciousness. If, furthermore, the ape had not risen up on its hind legs, its descendant — man — would have been compelled always to walk on all fours, to look downwards and obtain his impressions only from there; he would have been unable to look up and around himself and, consequently, his brain would have obtained no more impressions than the brain of a quadruped. All this would have fundamentally retarded the development of human consciousness.”

I have to wonder how many times this poor creature bumped his head on the branches, not being able to look up. Wouldn’t this make him lose consciousness?

STALIN’S WAR ON HIS PEOPLE

As a boy “Soso” had asked his grandmother why Jesus did not draw his saber when he was arrested in the garden of Gethsemane 17. In the Bible we find that Peter did draw a sword in order to defend Jesus, but Jesus told him very sternly to put it away (Matthew 26: 47-54). Stalin’s answer to injustice or things or people he didn’t like,, in total opposition to that of Jesus Christ, was violence, and his outlook never changed.

Gellately writes that in order to “help” the peasants in the country, Stalin, like Lenin before him, “resorted to terror, but this time on a greater scale than ever” 18.

One of his first targets was the Kulak. Kulaks were former peasants in Russia who owned medium-sized farms as a result of the reforms introduced by Peter Stolypin in 1906. Stalin explained to Marxist students on December 27th, 1929, that it was time to begin “eliminating the Kulaks as a class”, and that a “new Soviet offensive” was necessary. Gellately says that this was a “declaration of war on the countryside” 19.

Stalin said:

“To launch an offensive against the Kulaks, we must make preparations, and then strike, strike so hard as to prevent them from ever rising to their feet…” 20.

Dekulakization brigades were sent into the countriside and in collaboration with the locals, engaged in excesses every bit as dreadful as anything seen since the civil war 21.

It was not just the “rich” who were being murdered or sent away, it was also the peasants who worked for them. They were sent away into the burgreoning labor camp system, or used as free labour to help the Party fulfill their quotas. As part of the operation “local priests, resented for their religion… were attacked and driven from their  homes in the dead of winter” 22.

In some districts there were too few kulaks for the brigades to fulfill the quotas, so their wrath fell on “middle income” peasants , who were barely removed from dire poverty. Medvedev writes that in many areas the authorities blows fell on low-middle income peasants, poor peasants and even farm laborers, who for various reasons refused to join the collective farms and who for the convenience of repression were given the label of “Kulak supporter” 23.

The resultant chaos played a large part in severe food shortages, but those trying to flee the famine to the cities were shot or turned back, including the peasants. One eyewitness said that the open spaces “looked like a battle field after a great war” 24.

The “Great Terror” of the 1930’s saw mass operations in several directions, as Stalin and the Bolshseviks in a state of paranoia attempted to solidify their grip, and to extinguish “counterrevolutionary” elements. Stalin and others perpetuated the idea that there was a viscious enemy within the country which had to be ruthlessly eradicated. One of those elements was national minorities living in the USSR, particularly Germans,  including those who had become Soviet citizens.  As one example, Gellately covers operation 00439, mainly aimed at Germans, carried out in 1937 and 1938. This one of many mass operations resulted in 55, 005 people being condemned by the “extrajudicial” troikas. Of those, 41, 898 were shot 25.

In 1938 there were close to 2 million peopole in the Gulags, the labor camps, and the labor colonies 26.

The Party itself was not immune to the “cleansing” operations, and was “purged” during the 30’s. Many thousands were expelled and arrested. Major show trials followed.  Even in the central committee, 94 were executed, one assasinated, four commmitted suicide, and five died naturally 27.

Roy Medvedev writes about the persecution of the Church. He says that antireligious propoganda began to gain strength at the beginning of 1928, and by the fall of that year it had developed into outright terror against the church. He writes that all religious organizations and church groups suffered, but the focus of this “struggle” was the Orthodox church 28.

ONE OF THE MANY CHURCHES DESTROYED UNDER STALIN’S LEADERSHIP

In mid-1929 the Central Committee held a conference on antireligious work, followed shortly by the Second All-Union Congress of Militant Atheists. “After this congress”, writes Medvedev, “antireligious terrror increased universally”.

Dimitri Pospielovsky writes at length on the Party’s various methods of operation against the church, and against “religious superstition”. These operations relied heavily on atheistic propaganda, and continued for decades 29.

R. J. Rummel in his book “Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917” has estimated the numbers of victims of several revolutions, wars and various troubles in recent history. During the Collectivization period, between 1928- 1935, there were 11, 440, 000 victims in atheistic Soviet Russia. During the Great Terror period, 1935-1938, there were 4, 345, 000 victims. This is not including the victims of Stalin’s route to Utopia over the remainder of his life.  The total number of estimated victims in the Soviet Union between the October revolution of 1917 and 1987 is 61, 911, 000. For the slightly dyslexic that’s almost sixty-two million human beings 30.

Milovan Djilas, in his book “Conversations with Stalin”, wrote:

“Every crime was possible for Stalin, for there was not one he had not committed”.

Djilas expressed his hope for mankind, that for all time to come there would never again be the likes of Stalin, “For in him was joined the criminal senselessness of a Caligula with the refinement of a Borgia and the brutality of Ivan the Terrible” 31.

STALIN MEETS HIS MAKER

Radzinsky, relaying the writings of Stalin’s daughter in her book, “Only One Year” 32 describes Stalin’s death, which was on 5th March 1953. She and others described it as “slow and difficult”, and that:

“At the last minute he opened his eyes. It was a terrible look – either mad or angry and full of fear of death…Suddenly he raised his left hand and seemed either to be pointing upward somewhere or threatening us all…the next moment, his spirit after one last effort tore itself from his body” 33.

WHAT YOU THINK IS WHAT YOU ARE

When someone’s background is anything but Christian, we’re expected to believe that whatever that person does or believes in his or her private life has nothing to do with how he performs in his public life. Such is the case with the communists. Atheists want us all to think that just because they believed that we all evolved from a rock and then an ape man, and that all of history reflects this evolution, and that they wanted to get this evolutionary process moving faster by “the overthrow of all existing social conditions” –  it really has nothing to do with the fact that they had no regard for the value of human life. I’ll admit that the atheist and the humanist can be every bit as good a citizen as the Christian can be. But, once that rock-to-man belief is coupled with some political ideology which goes off on a tangent, away from the mainstream of common thought and ethics, anything can happen. It’s no coincidence that Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, Pol Pot, Mao and many other mass murderers were atheists or had very low regard for religion.

NEXT WEEK:

Perhaps part 5: Hitler. He believed in evolution and the dream of a master race of highly evolved people. Or perhaps something much lighter…in which case, Adolph wil appear in two weeks.

NOTES

1 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, with an introduction by Vladimir Pozner, The Communist Manifesto (Bantam Dell, New York, p 1992) p. 48.

2  Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 36.

3 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 38.

4 Stalin Sochineniia 13: 113.

5 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 36.

6 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York, NY., Reviedand Expanded Edition c 1989) p. 31.

7 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York NY., Revised and Expaneded edition) p. 304.

8 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition)  p. 35.

9  Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 38.

10  Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 156 – 159.

11  Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York,NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 159.

12 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York NY., Revised and Expaneded edition) p. 313 – 319.

13 Svetlana Alliluyeva Only One Year (New York, 1969) pp. 361, 362, 377).

14 E. Yaroslavsky, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing house, 1940), pp. 8-12.

15 J. V. Stalin Works (Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 1954) Vol. 1, Part 1: Anarchism or Socialism?

http://www.marx2mao.com/Stalin/AS07.html

16  J. V. Stalin Works (Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 1954) Vol. 1, Part 1: Anarchism or Socialism? p. 301.

17 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 36.

18  Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 169.

19 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 169.

20 Stalin Sochineniia Vol. 12, 166 – 167.

21 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 172.

22 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 172.

23 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York NY., Revised and Expaneded edition) p. 234

24 Miron Dolot Execution By Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust (New York, 1985) p. 180.

25 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 254.

26 Doc. 30, in Bezborodov and Khrustalev, Istoria Stalinskogo Gulaga Vol. 4, 109

27 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 267

28 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York NY., Revised and Expanded edition) p. 228.

29 Dimitri V. Pospielovsky A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies (St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY) Vol. 1.

30 R. J. Rummel Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 (Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, N.J. 1990) chapters 4 and 5.

 http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NOTE4.HTM

31 Milovan Djilas Conversations With Stalin (Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., First Edition, c 1962) p.187.

32 Svetlana Alliluyeva, Only One Year, translated by Paul Chavchavadze, NY, Harper & Row, 1969

33 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 576.

 

WAR, RELIGION AND ATHEISM Part 3: LENIN

A RECAPITULATION

My intention in this series is to debunk the notion that religion causes most or all war, and instead to show that war comes from the inner nature of man. Most particularly, as a way of demonstrating that very point, I intend to show that one of the out-workings of that nature comes via atheistic philosophies. I have shown that Marx and Engels were atheists who happily found Darwin’s theory to compliment their own view of historical, social evolution. This marriage of ideas helped to shape their entire view of history and their prescription for humanity’s “happiness” for the future, which included “the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions” 1.

A RETRACTION

I may have been a little hard on Marx and Engels for their whole-hearted acceptance of the ape-to man theory, even when they had nothing in the way of “evidence” to make such a complete commitment except Darwin’s hypothesis. To be fair on Marx, Engels and the other boys, they did demonstrate some evidence for evolution without realizing it. Note in the following pictures that the beards and mustaches gradually retreated as long ages passed, until they were no more than stumps or vestigial organs. Eventually they disappeared completely. Ladies and  gentlemen, I give you…

THE EVOLUTION OF THE BEARD (and mustache):

GOING…

 

lenin2
GOING…

 

 

 

 

5239314-mao-tse-tung-on-1-yuan-1999-banknote-from-china-chinese-communist-leader-during-1949-1976
GONE!

 

 

 

 

 

 

A REVISION

Having been a little critical in recent articles of John Lennon’s naive view of religion and nationalism, I remembered him singing, in the Beatles song “Revolution”:

“But if you’re talking about destruction

Well don’t you know that you can count me out…”

and…

“But if you want money for people with minds that hate

Well all I can tell you is brother, you’ll have to wait…” 2.

So Lennon deserves compliments and respect for the right response to his view of the world, as well as a fantastic voice and song writing ability. If only Marx and Lenin had thought the same way…

A REVOLUTION: LENIN AND MARXISM

In “Part 2” I discussed and documented the teachings of Karl Marx and Fredrich Engels. Their views were in large part political, and their goal of empowering the working class, who were, without doubt, sometimes treated very unfairly, is arguably a very noble one. However, they advocated “force” to attain their ends, and force was certainly employed to an extreme degree by their admirers in the following century and a half. Further, it was not just the “rich” who suffered. Francis Wheen, partial to socialism, writes that “Mass campaigns for better conditions and shorter working weeks, advocated by Marx in “Das Kapital”, were dismissed by Lenin as a waste of time. Instead, the workers should place themselves at the disposal of professional revolutionaries such as himself” 3.

He went on to quote Lenin saying “The contemporary socialist movement can come into being only on the basis of profound scientific knowledge….The bearer of this science is not the proletariat, but the bourgeoisie intelligentsia” 4.

My paraphrase: “only educated people like me know what to do – the rest of you are too stupid to be involved in decision-making – we just want you to do all the dirty work and the killing” (refer to George Orwell’s “Animal Farm”). Wheen comments that in these sentences can be seen in embryonic form what eventually became a monstrous tyranny.

Lenin, in a paper he wrote on Marxism, referred to Marx’s “revolutionary tactics”:

“The editor of the Encyclopedia, for their part, have, for censorship reasons, deleted the end of the article on Marx, namely, the section dealing with his revolutionary tactics…I only remember that in the concluding part of the article I quoted, among other things, the passage from Marx’s letter to Engels of April 16, 1856, in which he wrote: “The whole thing in Germany will depend on the possibility of backing the proletarian revolution by some second edition of the Peasant War. Then the affair will be splendid.”5.

As I said in Part 2, some writers are keen to separate the teachings of Karl Marx from the horrors of twentieth century communism. Vladimir Pozner, himself a socialist, while admitting that “Marx did call for the use of force” 6, takes the position in his introduction to “The Communist Manifesto” that Leninism has very little in common with Marxism: whatever happened after 1917 was the responsibility of Lenin, not Marx 7. However, the revolutionaries, including Lenin, all clearly regarded themselves as Marxists, even if they did reinterpret some of Marx’s methods and ideas. Francis Wheen wrote that both Lenin and Stalin made of Marxism what they wanted, then froze it into dogma, but he also said that the architects of the 1917 revolution “all cited Marx, and “Das Kapital” in particular, as the divine authority for the correctness of their views” 8.

But even if Lenin had not been a Marxist, he was an atheist, and a man who wished to rid his nation of religion. This position was consistent with Marxism, and is most relevant to the thrust of my series of articles.

THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION AND VIOLENCE

Unfortunately, the Bolsheviks’ thirst for violence was not satisfied by a simple punch-up in the committee room. Robert Gellately begins his discussion on the October 1917 revolution in Russia which was headed by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, by noting that the twentieth century was to be “the bloodiest ever” 9.

He describes how, in the early years of the century, Lenin had gravitated towards the fledgling Marxist movement, and busied himself in revolutionary activities, becoming more radical all the time. His writings advocated a party of professional revolutionaries dedicated to the cause. Instead of planning elections and democracy he recommended small cells of revolutionaries who would use “violence and all means necessary” 10.

Lenin began to gain leadership of the movement by the second congress of the main Marxist party, the RSDLP, in July 1903.

The Bolshevik wing of the RSDLP had nothing to do with the “liberal” March revolution of 1917, when “only” two or three thousand were killed. Lenin, Trotsky and Bukharin was absent from Russia, Stalin was in exile in westernSiberia.

However, they soon made up for their absence. In a pamphlet he wrote on August-September of 1917, Lenin said that:

“The dictatorship of the proletariat… would not be created without a violent revolution” 11.

While Russia was engaged in a desperate war with the Germans, Lenin, hoping for his own nation’s defeat, applied more pressure on his party to move against the government. In mid-October he won over the central committee, and the politburo was established which included Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin. While the October coup proceeded without a great deal of violence, Lenin’s aims were not achieved, so he made the case for forcing through a vanguard dictatorship, saying:

“We have always known…that Socialism cannot be ‘introduced’…that violence is always the midwife of the old society…”

“Dictatorship implies and means a state of simmering war, a state of military measures of struggle against the enemies of proletarian power” 12.

To stamp out resistance, the regime established three new institutions: the Cheka, or secret police; concentration camps; and the Red Army.

On January 6th, 1918 an article published in both Pravda and Izvetsia, Lenin announced that he was prepared to use terror “in the interests of the workers, soldiers and peasants” 13.

Violence and disruption was not limited to the “wealthy” or the bourgeoisie as a whole: it affected everyone. Gellately writes that whereas the peasants had at first been enthusiastic about Bolshevism, before long the lines for food which was not coming, and the failures of promises of land without payment, “there were thousands of riots and revolts as peasants fought back…” Their attitudes, and their protests, were then labeled as “kulak” (regarded as bourgeois) rebellions, and savagely repressed 14.

In an effort to route out all enemies of the revolution, the Cheka robbed and plundered and in drunken orgies raped and killed their way through one village after another. They killed and abused their victims without mercy “Suspected enemies could expect cruel torture, flogging, maiming or execution”, writes Gellately 15.

The Bolsheviks wished to wipe out entire classes and ethnic groups, such as the Cossacks, who they executed by the tens of thousands in the few years after 1917 16.

I could give many lengthy examples here of the kind of events that followed the 1917 revolution, but you can find such details in just about any serious writing on the works of Lenin and the Bolsheviks, unless it is something akin to the writings of Holocaust deniers, and there are such writings. What occurred was essentially a war on Russia’s own population.

R.J. Rummel, a political scientist and peace researcher, has spent many years estimating the number of victims of numerous wars, revolutions and purges around the world, having studied as many documents and historical records as possible. From his book “Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917” his estimate for the number of victims in Russia during the revolution and civil war period – 1917 to 1922- is 3,284,000, and for the “NEP” period, from 1923 to 1928, it is 2,200,000 17:

http://www.hawaii.edu/powerkills/NOTE4.HTM

These figures do not include the millions who were displaced from their homes and separated from their families.

LENIN, MARX AND EVOLUTION

Lenin was entirely committed to evolutionism and naturalism. He said:

“All of Marx’s theory is the most consistent, complete, well thought out and essential application to contemporary capitalism of the theory of evolution. The great value of Marx’s statements here, too, is to consistently apply materialistic dialectic and the theory of evolution, and to regard communism as something developing out of capitalism.” 18.

Marx and Engels’ teachings on dialectics and evolution included the idea that nothing is fixed in this universe – not even human thought and ideas:

“The great basic thought,” Engels writes, “that the world is not to be comprehended as a complex of ready-made things, but as a complex of processes, in which the things apparently stable no less than their mind images in our heads, the concepts, go through an uninterrupted change of coming into being and passing away…. For dialectical philosophy nothing is final, absolute, sacred. It reveals the transitory character of everything and in everything; nothing can endure before it except the uninterrupted process of becoming and of passing away, of endless ascendancy from the lower to the higher. And dialectical philosophy itself is nothing more than the mere reflection of this process in the thinking brain.” Thus, according to Marx, dialectics is “the science of the general laws of motion, both of the external world and of human thought.”19.

This was their way of saying “there are no absolutes” (sound familiar?).

Did anyone ask them if they were absolutely sure that there are no absolutes? Of course, if we did indeed evolve out of nothing, or a singularity, or soup, then they are right. If you wish to accept it, look out, because your world – your very life and everything you have – is up for grabs, and life is all about the survival of the fittest. If nothing is absolute, it’s not absolutely yours, and what you think you own can be claimed by someone else, including the government. If someone rubs you out, they are simply living out the “truth” of evolution. This was the view of Marx, Engels, and Lenin, and plenty of others.

Referring to and affirming Darwinism, while at the same time noting the link between Darwinism and Marxism, Lenin said:

“Just as Darwin put an end to the view of animal and plant species being unconnected, fortuitous, ‘created by God’ and immutable, and was the first to put biology on an absolutely scientific basis . . . so Marx . . . was the first to put sociology on a scientific basis . . .” 20.

Did you notice there the word “absolutely’? It’s funny how those “absolutes” can just come and go, depending on what fits your argument.

LENIN, ATHEISM AND RELIGION

Lenin said:

“Our Programme is based entirely on the scientific, and moreover the materialist, world-outlook” 21.

In the same speech, he said” “The proletariat of today takes the side of socialism, which enlists science in the battle against the fog of religion…”

Pospielovsky wrote “As far as atheism is concerned Lenin made it the immediate political task of the party…Lenin believed atheistic propaganda to be a necessity”. 22.

In 1905, while still claiming a willingness for everyone to believe what they wanted to, Lenin was already demanding that religion be “a private affair”, in other words, that public expression of it should be illegal 23. Does that sound familiar?. You can “believe what you want”, but they are going to make very sure that you are indoctrinated into evolutionism and hopelessness anyway. Lenin continued:

“Complete separation of Church and State is what the socialist proletariat demands of the modern state and the modern church” (sound familiar?).

Lenin described how socialism had come to rescue the worker from religion and any hope in the hereafter:

http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1905/dec/03.htm

Thanks a lot, Vlad, but I’ll keep my hope: you can be as hope-free as you wish.

In 1909 Lenin stated:

“A Marxist must be a materialist, i.e. an enemy of religion; but he must be a dialectical materialist, i.e. his struggle against religion ought not to be an abstract one….but a concrete one, based on class struggle” 24.

This is in keeping with Marx’s own statement that “Communism begins from the outset with atheism” 25.

Bolshevik atheism allowed for no compromise on religion whatsoever. Even the beliefs of Feuerbach (see part 2) were scalded as being too soft by Lenin, who said in Marxian style “Religion is opium for the people. Religion is a sort of spiritual booze, in which the slaves of capital drown their human image…” 26.

The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party Programme adopted at the Second Party Congress under Lenin’s leadership as early as 1903 promised the “confiscation of all lands belonging to monasteries and churches” 27.

Pospielovsky writes that Lenin developed a more pragmatic atheism than Marx. For Marx the critique of religion was just one of many revolutionary acts, for Lenin and the Soviet Marxists this critique was the first and most profound step towards communist self-determination 28.

In 1995 Reuters reported on a Russian presidential commission’s confirmation that 200,000 clergy were systematically murdered under Soviet rule, beginning in 1917.

The report by the Commission for the Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression also found another 500,000 religious figures had suffered persecution. The document goes into some detail of the extreme brutality of this treatment, which included crucifixions, and was even carried out on nuns. Of 48,000 churches inRussiabefore 1917, only 7000 remained by 1969. Jews and Moslems were often victims of similar treatment 29.

http://www.paulbogdanor.com/left/soviet/atheism1.html

TROTSKY: ATHEISM AND COMMUNISM/ SOCIALISM GO HAND IN HAND

Lenin’s views on religion were shared by all others in his party, or they would not have survived as party members or even as living men. Leon Trotsky, one of the original members of the politburo, in The Revolution Betrayed (1936), Chapter 3: “Socialism and the State”, said

“Marxism sets out from the development of technique as the fundamental spring of progress, and constructs the communist program upon the dynamic of the productive forces….Marxism is saturated with the optimism of progress, and that alone, by the way, makes it irreconcilably opposed to religion.”

Again, he said:

“Religion is a sop and a leash. Religion is a poison precisely during a revolutionary epoch and in a period of the extreme hardships which are succeeding the conquest of power. This was understood by such a counter-revolutionary in political sympathies, but such a deep psychologist, as Dostoevsky. He said: ‘Atheism is inconceivable without socialism and socialism without atheism. Religion denies not only atheism but socialism also.’ He had understood that the heavenly paradise and the earthly paradise negate one another.”

“We must go to them with the propaganda of atheism, for only this propaganda defines the place of man in the universe and draws out for him a circle of conscious activity here on earth” 30.

LENIN’S ATTACK ON THE FAMILY

Orlando Figues also discusses at length the Bolshevik attack on the family structure, and said that the Bolsheviks rejected the idea of abstract or Christian morality as a form of “bourgeois oppression” 31. I mentioned Marx’s view of the traditional family in Part 2. Marx said that the “bourgeois” traditional family structure had to go.

Figues, observed that the civil war waged by the Bolsheviks was not just a military struggle against the White armies (who were loyal to the Tsar); it was a revolutionary war against the private interests of the old society. Part of this attack was “a war against religion, persecuting priests and believers and closing hundreds of churches…” 32.

He noted that even if they retained their religious faith, the parents of Soviet children were less likely to communicate it to them, partly out of fear that the exposure of such beliefs could have disastrous consequences for the family 33. The testimonies of people who lived through that time are recounted, such as that by Boris Garrilov, born in 1921, who said “At school I was taught to be an atheist” 34.

Perhaps one of the worst aspects of Soviet life for the family was that so many people were separated from their families, their homes and their communities. Collectivization destroyed a way of life that had developed over many centuries:

Figues adds that millions of people were uprooted from their homes and dispersed across theSoviet Union. Old ties and loyalties were broken down, morality was dissolved. The whole population was subordinated to the state and forced to depend on it for almost everything. 35.

NEXT WEEK:

Lenin appointed Stalin as the new general secretary of the secretariat. Stalin replaced Lenin upon his death. Stalin was an even bigger monster than Lenin had been, and was himself an atheist.

Again, I do not mean to say that all atheists are evil or violent.

I may decide to publish something a little “lighter” next week, in which case the Stalin post will appear the week after, around June 29th-30th.

There is a “revolutionary” war on today, for your hearts and minds, and for your eternal soul. Pray hard.

God bless you all with hope, light, love and truth, which is found in His Son, Jesus Christ.

NOTES

1 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, with an introduction by Vladimir Pozner, The Communist Manifesto (Bantam Dell, New York, p 1992) p. 48.

2 The Beatles Revolution, The White Album (EMILondonUK) 1968

3 Francis Wheen, Marx’s Das Kapital: A Biography (Atlantic Monthly Press,New YorkNY, First US edition) p.98-100

4 Ibid, p. 100

5 VladimirIlyich Lenin, Karl Marx: A Brief Biographical Sketch With an Exposition of Marxism (from Lenin’s Collected Works,Moscow, 1974) Vol.21, pp. 43-91- preface. Thanks to “Marxists Internet Archive” for this.

6 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, with an introduction by Vladimir Pozner, The Communist Manifesto (Bantam Dell, New York, p 1992) p. xix.

7 Ibid, p. xviii.

8 Francis Wheen, Marx’s Das Kapital: A Biography (Atlantic Monthly Press, New York NY, First US edition) p.98.

9 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York,NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 23

10 Ibid, p. 26

11 V. I. Lenin, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 33, 123-307.

12 V. I. Lenin, Polnoe sobranie sochinenii, Vol. 35, p. 191-194

13 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books, New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 49

14 Ibid, p. 61-65

15 Ibid, p. 65

16 Ibid, p.65-72.

17 R. J. RUMMEL Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1990)

18 (Viladimir I. Lenin, Devlet ve Ihtilal, Marxist Devlet Ogretisi ve Proleteryanin Devrimdeki Gorevleri (State and Revolution, Marxist Teaching of State and Duties of the Proletariat in Revolution) Vol. 1)

19 Ibid, “The Marxist Doctrine”

20 V.I. Lenin, Collected Works, 45 vols. (Moscow, USSR: Progress Publishers, 1977), 1:142.

21 V.I. Lenin, Socialism and Religion, from Collected Works, (Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965) Vol. 10, pp. 83-87 (Thanks to “Marxists Internet Archive” for this one!)

22  Dimitry V. Pospielovsky, A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious PoliciesSt. Martin’s Press,New York,NY p1987) chapter 1, p.18.

23 V.I. Lenin, Socialism and Religion, from Collected Works, (Progress Publishers, Moscow, 1965) Vol. 10, pp. 83-87 (Thanks to “Marxists Internet Archive” for this one!)

24 ‘Obotnoshenii rabochei partii k religii’, as cited in: F. Putintsev, ‘Lenin i bor’ba s religiei’, Pod znamenem marxizma, no. 3 – (1932) p. 65.

25  Karl Marx “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844: Private Property and Communism”.

26 V. I . Lenin, Collected Works, 5th edition (M.: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1962) vol. 4, p. 2.

27 Dimitry V. Pospielovsky, A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY p1987), introduction.

28 Ibid, p. 25

29 Original Report: Philippa Fletcher, Reuters, Hobart Mercury, (Australia, November 29, 1995).

30 Leon Trotsky, The Position of the Republic and the Tasks of Young Workers, Report of the 5th All-Russian Congress of the Russian Communist League of Youth (1922) Published in the Bulletin of the Fifth All-Russian Congress of the Russian Communist League of Youth (Moscow: Molodaya Gvardiya, 1923). Translated by R. Chappel, published 1972.

31 Orlando Figues, The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin’s Russia (Metropolitan Books, New York, NY, First US edition) p. 33.

32 Ibid, p. 5

33 Ibid, p. 44.

34 Ibid, p. 81.

35 Ibid, p. 45.