Tag: Socialism

Nauseating Public Radio: Our Mission


Nauseating Public Radio is anxious to convince you that it is unbiased, fair and balanced in its stance on political and social issues. In order to do this, we will continually inform you that all those mistaken and foolish right-wingers and extremists are threatening to destroy our nation and cause a world war, while the liberals of our land are the level-headed ones who deserve our respect and admiration.

As election times approach, we will highlight all the terrible, regressive policies and aims of our opponents, and shine a warm light on the Democratic movement. We will endeavor to acquire more of your money, so that we are able to increase our campaigning efforts for our next presidential candidate.


Naturally, Our Glorious Leader is beyond reproach, and we will perpetually relay that fact to you. We will either keep totally silent about his mistakes and devious practices and policies – of which there are none, of course – or we will pretend to analyze his actions while really painting him in the best light possible, showing that his critics are just sour old losers who got us all into this mess in the first place. We are masters at setting up a “debate” which is cleverly designed to convey the truth as we want you to see it.

We want to keep you thinking that socialist billionaires (no that is NOT an oxymoron) are totally unbiased and generous people, and that capitalist billionaires are greedy, selfish money grabbers.

In the realm of world affairs, our agenda is to defend and promote the correct view, which is, of course, that those nasty Israelis have caused all of our problems by insisting that they have the right to defend themselves against threats of annihilation.

Our view of religion is the correct one, when we actually have the stomach to mention religion at all. We will portray that old one, beginning with ‘C’, either as a doting old grandfather, or as a dangerous threat to society and freedom, and the other one as being completely friendly and peace-loving, as Our Glorious Leader has also made clear. We will continue to focus on the freedom and equality their women enjoy, compared to the terrible oppression our women were under during that ‘C’ religion’s reign.


We share Our Glorious Leader’s social agenda, and it will be vigorously advanced, particularly in the area of “choice” and our right to take life whenever we want to, as will our resolve to see the free and open expression of all sexual persuasions, not just that boring old restrictive one which extremists try to claim brought maximum social stability and health – ha!

Our science programming will passionately advance the proven facts of evolution, and radio is the ideal medium for doing this, because we don’t have any need to even attempt to show you any hard evidence. All we have to do is highlight the credentials of our guests, convince you that they know it all, like gods, and you will be easily and completely convinced! You will not even want to consider thinking any other way, because we are the informed intellectuals, the glorious elite, and you will not want to appear to be ignorant or to commit intellectual suicide. We have you in our power!


In order to dress and flavor our agenda and mission in a fuzzy, friendly cloak, and to get that pill of political and social correctness down your throat without you noticing, we will continue our successful comedy and musical programming.

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Wishing to make this post a lot shorter than previous parts of my series, I’ve had to exclude a lot of interesting detail… 

My intention in this series is to debunk the notion that religion causes most or all war, and instead to show that war comes from the inner nature of man. One of the out-workings of that nature comes via atheistic philosophy.

In previous parts I discussed Marxism’s fundamental doctrine of atheism, along with its followers’  lust for violence during the 2oth century. I also looked at Hitler, who was not a Marxist, and his view that it was his job to give “Nature” a big helping hand in “her” administration of  the survival of the fittest.  Atheism and evolutionism were vital foundations in the philosophies of these men:


“They (communists) openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communistic revolution…”- Karl Marx

 “Evolution prepares for revolution and creates the ground for it; revolution consummates the process of evolution and facilitates its further activity” – Joseph Stalin (FROM PART I OF J. V. Stalin ANARCHISM or SOCIALISM?)

Today’s atheist wishes us to think that  atheism has nothing to do with war or atrocities, whereas anyone remotely professing or being identified with Christianity and yet committing crimes or atrocities obviously does so because of what he believes. What you believe only leads to bad actions if you’re a Christian or if you’re religious. Hmm.. Seems like a pretty fair judgment, eh?

No, the reality is that many who have accepted the rock-to-ape-to- man propaganda have married their atheism with ideologies based on the need for violence and the eradication of their perceived enemies. The “survival of the fittest” mentality has been a bedrock argument for mass murder, as I have documented in previous articles. If you are nothing more than an ape in clothes, and no more valuable than a rat, or “just a foetus”, then you can be wiped out and swept away. This was the attitude of men like Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Hitler and Mao, atheists who between them presided over the slaughtering of many millions of people. While it’s true that nobody has fought a war in the name of atheism alone, atheism plus ideology equals tyranny and terror.

Even if their atheism did not influence their actions (and it did), these men were NOT religious! This alone is a significant point in my argument.

All Marxist leaders, and Hitler and his Nazis, have declared that the state is to be considered the supreme entity among men: the individual is of little importance. I say that if we are not “endowed by our creator with inalienable rights”, then we are at the mercy of the state, who will decide what our rights will be, and what is right or wrong.  We will be serving the state, when the state should be there to serve its citizens.

Mao Zedong believed that he should decide what the rights of his people would and would not be:

“At no time and in no circumstances should a communist place his personal interests first: he should subordinate them to the interests of the nation and of the masses” From “The Role of the Chinese Communist Party in the National War” (October 1938) Selected Works, Vol.II p. 198.  


R. J. Rummel, in his book “China’s Bloody Century” has estimated that the Chinese communists murdered almost thirty-nine million of its own citizens in the 20th Century 1.


As an atheist, was Mao peace loving and benevolent? His own words express the opposite:

“A revolution is not a dinner party…A revolution is an insurrection, an act of violence by which one class overthrows another” From “Report on an Investigation of the Peasant Movement in Hunan” (March 1927), Selected works, Vol. 1, p. 28.

“According to the Marxist theory of the state, the army is the chief component of state power…The guns of the Russian Communist Party created socialism…it is only by the power of the gun that the working class and the labouring masses can defeat the armed bourgoisie and landlords; in this sense we may say that only with guns can the whole world be transformed”  From ‘Problems of War and Strategy” (November 6, 1938), Selected Works, Vol. II, p. 225.


In all sayings attributed to Mao, he regarded his movement as “Marxist”. Remember that Marx was an atheist and an evolutionist, Marx said that “Communism begins at the outest with atheism”, and that Marx encouraged “the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions” . Mao associated himself openly with Marxism:

“It is necessary to master Marxist theory and apply it, master it for the sole purpose of applying it” From ‘Rectify the Party’s style of Work” (Feb. 1, 1942) Selected Works Vol. III, p 38.

“If there is to be a revolution, there must be a revolutionary party. Without a revolutionary party built on the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory and the Marxist-Leninist style, it is impossible to lead the working class and the broad masses of the people  in defeating imperialism and its running dogs” From Revolutionary Forces of the World Unite, Fight against Imperialist Aggression!” (November 1948), Selected Works, Vol. IV, p. 248.


Most people are not aware (because it is conveniently swept under the carpet) that Darwin’s writings were so filled with racist ramblings that they would be rejected immediately if written now. You can almost match some of his phrases to those of Hitler:

“At some future period, not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate, and replace the savage races throughout the world. At the same time the anthropomorphous apes… will no doubt be exterminated. The break between man and his nearest allies will then be wider, for it will intervene between man in a more civilized state, as we may hope, even than the Caucasian, and some ape as low as a baboon, instead of as now between the negro or Australian and the gorilla.”2.

Mao Zedong has said:

The foundation of Chinese Socialism rests on Darwin and the theory of evolution. Mao Zedong (K. Mehnert, Kampf um Mao’s Erbe, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1977)

“Our God is none other than the masses of the Chinese people” From “The Foolish Old Man Who Removed the Mountains” (June 11, 1945), Selected Works, Vol. III, p. 322.

“The Marxist philosophy of dialectical materialism has two outstanding characteristics. One is its class nature: it openly avows that dialectical materialism is in the service of the proleteriat…” From “On Practice” (July 1937), Selected Works, Vol.I p. 297.

“Idealism and metaphysics are the easiest thing in the world, because people can talk as much nonsense as they like without basing it on objective reality…” Intro. Note to “Material on the Hu Feng Counter-Revolutionary Clique” May 1955).

If Mao is correct about metaphysics, then we had better forget all we learned from a multitude of believers such as Copernicus, Isaac Newton, Joseph Mendel, Galileo, William Wilberforce, Abraham Lincoln and Wernher Von Braun.

Mao and Chinese Communism is widely known to be based on belief in evolution. As an example, Riazatt Butt wrote in Britain’s “Guardian”:

“Mao also recognised the importance of Darwinian theory. It legitimised his nation. In 1957 the chairman discussed China in Darwinist terms: ‘Socialism, in the ideological struggle, now enjoys all the conditions to triumph as the fittest.’

“That same year Mao also invoked Darwin to justify his “Hundred Flowers Campaign”of openness to invite new ideas for advancement of the communist nation, writing: ‘Correct and good things have often at first been looked upon not as fragrant flowers but as poisonous weeds; Copernicus’s theory of the solar system and Darwin’s theory of evolution were once dismissed as erroneous and had to win out over bitter opposition.’ “. (Riazat Butt in Alexandria, Guardian.co.uk Monday 16 November 2009)

Fenggang Yang, in his book “Religion in China”, in a chapter titled “Chinese Marxist Atheism and its Policy Implications”, said:

“In the ideological lexicon of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), Marxist-Leninist atheism is a fundamental doctrine” 3.

Yang explains that since 1921, when the Chinese Communist Party was established, Chinese atheism has taken two major forms: enlightenment atheism, which views atheist propaganda as a necessary weapon to fight religion, and militant atheism, which considers that political forces are necessary to control and elliminate religion. There is a third form emerging recently, self-designated as “mild atheism”.

Yang says that Mao singlehandedly launched the Great Proleterian Cultural Revolution to purge the “bourgeoise elements” believed to be permeating the party and society at large, and he notes  that:

“militant atheism preceeded the eradication policy during the Cultural Revolution beginning in 1966” 4.


You’re probably all screaming “enough-we’ve got the point!” I agree, so look for something completely different…


1 R. J. Rummel China’s Bloody Century (Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, N.J., 1991)

2 Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man, 2nd edition, New York, A L. Burt Co., 1874, p. 178

3 Fenggang Yang Religion In China: Survival and Revival Under Communist Rule (Oxford University Press, 2012) p. 45.

4 Ibid, p. 48.

ADOLPH HITLER: Part 5 of War, Religion and Atheism

My intention in this series is to debunk the notion that religion causes most or all war, and instead to show that war comes from the inner nature of man. One of the out-workings of that nature comes via atheistic philosophy


In this part of my series, I answer the contemporary claim of some atheists that Hitler was a Christian and therefore that the church, and by implication Jesus Christ, is guilty of the holocaust. I also examine Hitler’s passion for giving the evolution of man, and mother nature, a helping hand. That is, I show that Hitler saw a universe in free flow, with no real God directing its events or planning its salvation. I also consider Hitler’s design for the church, in contrast with what the fore-mentioned atheist would have you believe about Nazi “religion”.


There’s no need for me to go into any depth on the subject of Hitler’s lust for blood and war! You can read about it in thousands of books.

R. J. Rummel has estimated the number of people killed in Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945, not counting those killed in the war started by Hitler and Nazi ideology:

“By genocide, the murder of hostages, reprisal raids, forced labor, “euthanasia,” starvation, exposure, medical experiments, and terror bombing, and in the concentration and death camps, the Nazis murdered from 15,003,000 to 31,595,000 people, most likely 20,946,000 men, women, handicapped, aged, sick, prisoners of war, forced laborers, camp inmates, critics, homosexuals, Jews, Slavs, Serbs, Germans, Czechs, Italians, Poles, French, Ukrainians, and many others. Among them 1,000,000 were children under eighteen years of age.1 And none of these monstrous figures even include civilian and military combat or war-deaths” 1.


Hitler did not parade himself as an atheist, but his own writings and doctrines betray his beliefs, which were anything but Biblical.

William Shirer wrote that “Hitler saw all of life as an eternal struggle and the world as a jungle where the fittest survived and the strongest ruled.” Hitler’s view therefore was directly opposite to the teaching of the entire Bible, but conformed considerably to Darwinian evolution: Jesus said that the “meek” will inherit the earth, and not “the strongest” (Matthew 5:5).

Shirer considered the roots of Hitler’s philosophy: the people who had shaped his thinking. One of these was the originator of the famous “God is dead” phrase. Nietzche’s view of Christianity was that it was “the one great curse, the enormous blemish of mankind…” 2.

On the subject of morality, Nietzche said:

Society has never regarded virtue as anything else than a means to strength, power and order”.

This is consistent with Hitler’s view as outlined in “Mein Kampf”: he thought that religion was all about morality and order.

On the value of life, Nietzche said:

“There is no such thing as the right to live (sound familiar?), the right to work, or the right to be happy: in this respect man is no different from the meanest worm” 3.

Hitler did speak of “the eternal will that dominates this universe” 4 and even put terms such as “God” or “the Lord” into the mix, but Hitler’s God was not the Biblical, universe – ruling Person of the Bible, it was his personification of “Nature”.

The Bible of National Socialism was “Mein Kampf”. Abraham Foxman, in his introduction to Mein Kampf, wrote that the glue which held together all the disparate themes of Hitler, which he had outlined, was:

“An extreme form of race-oriented social-Darwinism” 5.

Foxman explained how the modern “science” of race had evolved with the Enlightenment. It held that certain races were inherently “primitive”, and so white men were able to justify their continued toleration of black slavery and their continuing imperialist control over places such as Africa.

“Differences between races were scientifically ‘proven’…the races were then ranked on some arbitrary scale, with modern European man always holding the highest spot”.

Racial theories became increasingly radical as they incorporated aspects of Darwinism, which swept the Western World in the mid to late 1800s.”

You don’t have to read very far into Hitler’s own writing in Mein Kampf, the Bible of National Socialism, before coming across his own application of the implications of evolutionary theory.

In Hitler’s view his own nation was home to a large number of the strongest and most perfect race: “unmixed stocks of Nordic-German people” 6. At the other end of Hitler’s scale was the Jew, and on the subject of those of African descent, while considering culture in the hands of the “weaker” races, he said:

“in a bastardized and niggerized world all the concepts of the humanly beautiful and sublime, as well as all ideas of an idealized future of our humanity would be lost forever” 7.

Written well before WWII, Mein Kampf makes Hitler’s hatred for the  Jew known very early on. Warning of the dangers of Marxism, which he saw as a Jewish plot to take over the world, he said that if the Jew were to be “victorious over the other peoples of the world” (as if the Jew were trying to be) “his crown will be the funeral wreath of humanity and this planet will, as it did thousands of years ago, move through the ether devoid of men”

“Eternal Nature inexorably avenges the infringement of her commands.”  8.

Hitler mysteriously claims that he is acting in accordance with the will of the “Almighty Creator”, and “fighting for the work of the Lord”. However, his own words have already demonstrated in several ways a total non-compliance with the Biblical God. First, there is no mention in the Bible or in History of the Jew attempting to take over the world. Marx’s socialism was nothing to do with the Bible or religion or with ethnic or national origin: it was entirely atheistic and “international”, as Marx himself had declared (see Part 2 of my series). Secondly, Hitler’s “Almighty” is “Eternal Nature”. This is much closer to being a Pantheistic view of the universe than a Biblical one. Thirdly, while it’s true that the European Church was largely anti-Semitic through the centuries, it’s also plain that there is no command in the New Testament or anywhere in the Bible for anyone to attempt to wipe out the Jew, and certainly there is no command for Hitler to do so. I am a Christian and I see no reason to do so. In fact, I want to bless the  Jew, because, (and Hitler missed this fundamental principle) God said of the nation which would descend from Abraham:

“I will bless those who bless you, and I will curse those who curse you” (Genesis 12:2-3).

Fourth, Hitler demonstrates his evolutionary view of the universe by saying that it was devoid of men for millennia (and the second edition replaced the word “thousands” with “millions”). The Bible sees man on the earth six days after its creation.

Fifth, he envisages, in an attempt to foster hatred of the Jew, the world once again being devoid of men for millennia after the Jews destroy it. Biblically speaking, God really is “Almighty”: He could not and would not allow such a thing to happen, and if Hitler had taken any notice of the Bible at all, he would have noticed that entire chapters and books of the Bible declare He will not. The Savior of the world is Jesus Christ, not Adolph Hitler. Hitler’s warning speaks of an empty universe without a creator, except for the theoretical one from whom he wishes to borrow justification.

In attempting to worry his readers with his projection of a booming population and consequential shortage of resources (sound familiar?), Hitler describes a ruling force in the universe which sounds far more like Gaia than Jehovah. The Pagans must have loved his repeated reference to the “Eternal Almighty” as a “she”:

“Nature herself in times of great poverty or bad climatic conditions, as well as poor harvest, intervenes to restrict the increase of population of certain countries or races….all those who are less strong and less healthy are forced back into the womb of the eternal unknown…she keeps the race and species strong, in fact, raises them to the highest accomplishments” 9.

As we know, Hitler wanted to give “Eternal Nature” a helping hand in this regard.  Hitler declares that it is a fatal weakness to help the weak.

Notice the contrast in Christ’s attitude:

“I tell you the truth, whatever you did not do for one of the least of these, you did not do for me (Matthew 25:43). Jesus healed, loved and fed the sick, the weak and the deformed: Hitler killed them. His view was in total agreement with the “survival of the fittest” mentality which you should also subscribe to if you really believe Darwinian evolution to be true.

Helping the weaker races, according to Hitler, people are making a “mockery of nature”….Ultimately “Nature …destroys the weak to give his place to the strong”.

Getting to the real crux of his argument – the need for violence – Hitler declares:

“Never yet has a state been founded by peaceful economic means, but always and exclusively by the instincts of preservation of the species…” 10.

Philosophies and beliefs do make a difference in the way people act. The fact that Hitler believed in evolution, and that to him some humans were not really humans but no better than rats which were destroying the strength and purity of the human race, must  have something to do with the fact that he wiped out millions of people: he stated as much in Mein Kampf. This is undeniable.

Our friend the ape-man makes his appearance in Hitler’s book. He calls man “THE DEAR LITTLE APE OF THE ALMIGHTY” 11.



To an extent Hitler created a façade of religiosity, in order to buy himself some respectability in a European nation which was largely Christian. In those days, the majority of people in Europe considered themselves to be “Christians” even if they never went to church or believed anything.  Hitler sometimes used religious terms and concepts to illustrate his points. He even put forward his own vision of a future religion, in which the state would be the one to be worshipped and served. Of course, as the state’s Fuehrer, and putting himself in the place of God, Hitler gladly received that worship. The word “anti” can mean “in place of”, and in this sense Hitler was indeed “anti-Christ”.

In a section of William Shirer’s book titled “The persecution of the Christian Churches”, he outlines how both the Catholic church in Germany and the Protestant church were pressured into towing the Aryan race line, and he called this pressure the “Nazi war on the Christian Churches…”12.

A leader of the church opposition to Nazi policies, Pastor Niemoeller, was the guiding spirit in both the “confessional Church” and the “Pastor’s Emergency League”. This was in distinction to the church movement which had sided with Nazism, headed by Reich Bishop Mueller 13.

At the end of 1935, the Gestapo arrested seven hundred Confessional Church pastors. This was the first large-scale move against the church. Niemoeller resigned his position. In July of 1935 he was arrested and confined in prison. Eight hundred pastors and leading laymen of the Confessional Church were arrested in 1937, and hundreds more over the next couple of years 14.

One pastor commonly discussed these days in the western Christian church is Dietrich Bonhoffer. He calmly but firmly expressed his opposition to Nazism, and ended up being executed in a concentration camp shortly before the end of the war


Hitler’s vision for Germanywas set out in a thirty point program for the “National Reich Church”, drawn up during the war by Rosenberg, an outspoken pagan. Here are a few of those points:

13 The National Church demands immediate cessation of the publishing and dissemination of the Bible in Germany…

18 The National Church will clear away from its altars all crucifixes, Bibles, and pictures of saints.

19 On the altars there must be nothing but Mein Kampf…. And to the left of the altar a sword.

20 On the day of its foundation, the Christian Cross must be removed from all churches, cathedrals and chapels…and it must be superseded by only the unconquerable symbol, the swastika 15.

In Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”) Hitler tells us quite clearly how he felt about Christianity. He said that in order to build its own altar, “it was forced to undertake the destruction of the heathen altars…This type of intolerance and fanaticism positively embodies the Jewish nature…” (and we know how Hitler felt about the Jews)…”we may deeply regret this fact and establish with justifiable loathing that its appearance in the history of mankind is something that was previously alien to history” He continues:

“A philosophy filled with infernal intolerance will only be broken by a new idea…”

Interestingly, while Stiegmann-Gall aims to link Hitler and Jesus Christ with the word “intolerance” (see the section below), it’s Hitler and Gall who seem to be in agreement on this one. Hitler continues:

“The individual may establish with pain today that with the appearance of Christianity the first spiritual terror entered into the far freer ancient world, but he will not be able to contest the fact that since then the world has been afflicted and dominated by this coercion, and that coercion is broken only by coercion, and terror only by terror.  Only then can a new state of affairs be constructively created” 16.


In July of 1935 Hitler appointed a Nazi lawyer friend, Dr. Hans Kerrl, to be Minister for Church Affairs, in a second attempt to bring the entire church into line. In 1937 Kerrl made the following speech:

“Positive Christianity is National Socialism…God’s will reveals itself in German blood…Dr. Zoellner and Count Galen (bishops) have tried to make clear to me that Christianity consists of faith in Christ as the Son of God. That makes me laugh…True Christianity is represented by the party…The Fuehrer is the herald of a new revelation 17.

To Nazis Socialism and Christianity were synonyms, and the National Socialist German Workers Party was expressing competition with Marxist themes for the support of German workers (Hitler hated Marx, who he condemned as a Jew).

Hegel, whose ideas also influenced Hitler’s thinking, had once said that the state was “God walking on earth”, and that the will of the state must take precedence over the will of the individual 18.

According to Steigmann-Gall Hitler maintained that the movement’s goal was to “translate the ideals of Christ into deeds” 19. To the Nazis, Christianity was socialism – the kind of socialism represented by the party. One of their mottos was “public need before private greed”, which seems like a very noble ideal, but Christianity is not about socialism, it is about Jesus Christ. Christ’s aim was to facilitate a relationship between God and man, not to coerce people into passing money around, or government control of its citizens.

Hitler had a plan to hijack the church and take it in his direction. He wrote:

“Take away from present day mankind its education-based, religious-dogmatic principles or, practically speaking, ethical-moral principles…but without replacing it by an equivalent and the result will be a grave shock to the foundations of their existence” 20.

Here we see that to Hitler religion was about morality. Also we see that he did not intend to wipe away the church or “religion”, since this would be a “grave shock” to society Instead he intended to replace it: to rebuild it in his image. Hitler said that his “folkish state” must set race in the center of all life”.

“Anyone who speaks of a mission of the German people on earth must know that it can exist only in the formation of a state which sees its highest task in the preservation and promotion of the most noble elements of our nationality…” 21.

The church was to be just another tool in the state’s hands.


When I first read the claim that Hitler was a Christian, I almost laughed, because I thought it was a joke. I soon learned that there are many, particularly atheists, who are jumping onto this bandwagon of opportunity to strike a below-the–belt blow at the church. History is being revised, in the light of “new findings”.

After reading one book promoting the idea that many of the Nazis were Christians, I have to say I felt as though I had somehow been violated. I had to have a shower. Not content to highlight party members’ mention of certain Christian terms or aspects of the Christian faith, Steigman-Gall descends to associating Nazi anti-Semitism with the words of Christ:

“Especially evident in Hitler’s case, the Nazi’s consistent association with the person of Jesus and his message reveals a religious dimension to Nazi anti-Semitism…” 22.

I cannot help stating here very plainly that Jesus’ message was exactly opposite to that of Hitler’s, that the two names should not even be mentioned in the same breath, and that attempting to paint a link between the two is, in the case of a Professor of History who should know better and probably does, as close to blasphemy as you can get.

howling wolf


Again, he says that “among wide circles Nazism was infused with key elements of Christian belief” I am going to demonstrate why this is not a true statement.

Dismissing the many anti Christian and anti Church rantings and actions of the Nazis, Gall’s book is cleverly formulated to make Hitler and other party officials appear to have been card-carrying, hymn-singing, pious members of the universal church of Jesus Christ while the Son of God smiled on.

Finally, in his conclusion, Steigmann-Gall manages to get onto the subject of intolerance, relating it to Christianity. I believe this is the motivating force behind his book. I had the feeling that given one more page the author would have been discussing “gay rights” and not Nazi beliefs.

One thing that puzzles me is this: if beliefs do not drive actions, as atheists want us to think in the case of atheists like Lenin, Stalin and Mao, then what is the point of Steigmann-Gall’s book?

Jesus said that we are to watch out for “wolves in sheep’s’ clothing”, and he said  “by their fruit you will recognize them” (Matthew 7:35-40). We don’t believe that someone is an atheist if we see him praying and praising the Lord, no matter how many times he tells us that he admires Richard Dawkins. In the same way, we look at Hitler’s teachings and his “fruit” of destruction and death and we know without doubt that he was not a prophet of God, no matter what he might have said on the odd occasion which made him appear to the atheist or the uninformed which appears to paint him as a Christian. He was not a Christian.

Even before the Nazis came to power, Hitler boasted:

“Will the masses ever again become Christian? Nonsense. Never again. That film is worn out. Nobody wants to see it anymore” 23.

Hitler was confident that “liberal priestlings, who have no belief any longer…will substitute our Hakenkreuz (swastika) for their own cross” 24.

Hitler designed the swastika. It symbolized the struggle and mission of “Aryan Man”23.



I’ve shown that Hitler’s God was more of a Pantheistic force than anything, to which he applied a few Biblical sounding names and phrases because that was the culture he lived in. He made mention of Jesus indirectly, as though afraid to use his name. However, Hitler’s Christ was nothing like the real one.

Over and over again Hitler demonstrates either his complete ignorance of – or intentional rejection of – Biblical content and doctrines: he was in no way a practicing or a believing Christian, Biblically speaking. For example, in an attack on the Jew, he says:

“…the Jew never possessed a state with definite territorial limits and therefore never called a culture his own” 25.

In truth you can find Israel and its unique culture all through the entire Old Testament and New Testament from Genesis chapter 12 onwards, not to mention plenty of history and archeology.

People like Steigmann-Gall sneer at the remarks of believers that “real Christians” don’t do things like slaughtering millions of people. Hitler did it, and he was a Christian, so there’s the proof that they do, right?

Hitler’s folkish state was to set race at the center of all life. The state’s interests were to be supreme. In contrast, Jesus said that the greatest commandment was to love God first (Matthew 22: 37-38). Hitler was also obviously unaware of the second most important commandment, which was to “Love your neighbor as yourself” (verse 39). How could a follower of Christ completely miss what he said were the two greatest commandments?

While Jesus did drive money changers out of the temple, he didn’t kill any of them, or encourage anyone else to do so.

Hitler was after conquest and blood: Jesus Christ said “My Kingdom is not of this world. If it were, my servants would fight to prevent my arrest by the Jews” (John 18: 36).

Hitler hated the Jews, the people who are central to the entire Old Testament and most of the New. Jesus quoted extensively from the Old Testament and believed it to be all true. Jesus was Jewish and descended, humanly speaking, from the tribe of Judah and from Abraham Luke 3:23-38.  His disciples were Jewish. Hitler hated Paul, the Jew who wrote a large portion of the New Testament. If Hitler had read the Bible at all, he would have had to remove ninety-five percent of its content if he wanted to remove all traces of Jewishness. It’s obvious that he in fact did that – and replaced it with Mein Kampf.

Jesus refused the kingdoms of this world when offered them by Satan (Matthew 4:8-10). Hitler wished to accept, nay snatch them for himself.

Nazis may have shared the concept with Christians that there is good and evil in the world, but their definitions of good and evil were not in agreement with Biblical definitions.

Which characteristic did Hitler have in common with Jesus Christ? Was it compassion, love, kindness, forgiveness, mercy, self-sacrifice, humility, meekness? Of course, none of these qualities apply to Hitler, and all of them apply to Christ. How, then can Hitler be considered a “Christ-one”?


1 Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder By R.J. Rummel New Brunswick,    N.J.:Transaction Publishers, 1992


2 William L. Shirer The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi    Germany (Simon and Schuster, New York, NY., first S&S hardcover edition, 1960) p. 97

3 Ibid, p. 97-100.

4 Adolph Hitler Mein Kampf (Mariner Books,New York. First Mariner Edition 1999, Translated by Ralph Manheim)

5  Abraham Foxman Introduction to Adolph Hitler Mein Kampf (Mariner Books,  New York. First Mariner Edition 1999, Translated by Ralph Manheim) p. xx

6  Adolph Hitler Mein Kampf (Mariner Books,New York. First Mariner Edition 1999, Translated by Ralph Manheim) p. 397.

7  Ibid, p. 383.

8  Ibid, p. 65.

9  Ibid, p. 131-132.

10 Ibid, p. 153.

11 Ibid, p. 132.

12 William L. Shirer The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (Simon andSchuster,New York, NY., first S&S hardcover edition, 1960) p. 234

13 Ibid, p. 238

14 Ibid, p.239

15 William L Shirer etc From Stuart W. Herman Jr., It’s Your Souls We Want pp. 297-300; also in the New York Times of January 3rd, 1942. Herman was the pastor of theAmericanChurch inBerlin from 1936 to 1941.

16  Adolph Hitler Mein Kampf (Mariner Books,New York. First Mariner Edition 1999, Translated by Ralph Manheim) p. 454-455.

17 William L. Shirer etc.p. 240 From Stuart W. Herman Jr., It’s Your Souls We Want pp. 157-158

18 Arthur W. Hunt III The Vanishing Word (Crossway Books,Wheaton Il.) p. 218

19  Richard Steigmann-Gall The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919-1945 (Cambridge University Press, New York, NY c 2003) p. 27

20  Adolph Hitler Mein Kampf (Mariner Books,New York. First Mariner Edition 1999, Translated by Ralph Manheim) p. 379.

21  Ibid, p. 397.

22  Richard Steigmann-Gall The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity, 1919-1945 (Cambridge University Press,New York,NY c 2003) p. 265

23  Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York,NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008)

24  Hermann Rauschning Talks With Hitler, in Memoirs of Alfred Rosenberg (New York: Ziff-Davis Publishing Company 1949) p. 89

25  Adolph Hitler Mein Kampf (Mariner Books,New York. First Mariner Edition 1999, Translated by Ralph Manheim) p. 303.



My intention in this series is to debunk the notion that religion causes most or all war, and instead to show that war comes from the inner nature of man. One of the out-workings of that nature comes via atheistic philosophy.


I’ve shown that Marx and Engels were atheists who happily found Darwin’s theory to compliment their own view of historical, social evolution. This marriage of ideas helped to shape their entire view of history and their prescription for humanity’s “happiness” for the future, which necessitated “the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions” 1.

I discussed in Part 2  how Lenin, Trotsky and the other Bolshevik Party leaders in Russia held evolution and atheism to be a central plank in their ideology, and how they wished to rid their nation and ultimately their world of religion. Religion, to the Marxist, was nothing more than a “drug” being used by the ruling classes to dope the masses while they used and abused them.

The Bolsheviks’ tools and methods agoinst the ruling classes (which in practice affected all levels of society) were mass violence and terror: a war against their own people, which may well have extended to the rest of us, had the West not stood up to communism…


Stalin, nick-named “Soso”  by his mother, was sent to seminary. Edvard Radzinsky, whose book covers many of the incredible atrocities of Stalin’s reign, records that when Stalin was at school the seminaries were a hotbed of revolutionaries who had adopted Marxist teachings. They saw it as their duty to enthrone a new Messiah, that is, the World Proleteriat” 2. Radzinsky writes that before long Stalin was often absent from seminary to run Marxist discussion groups 3. Stalin himself said that he was a supporter of Marxism from the age of fifteen 4. His official biography records that he was expelled because of his interest in Marxism, and his efforts at spreading Marxist propaganda. Soon out of school, he was involved in revolutionary activities 5. By 1905 he was participating in and oranizing many major terrorist acts 6.

As I noted in part 2, Stalin did make what he wanted of Marxism, but his beliefs were essentially the same as those of Marx, and he certainly regarded himself as a Marxist, as did the other Party members. Roy Medvedev writes that by 1932, Stalin “aspired to the leading position in the sphere of Marxist theory” 7.


Stalin was attracted to Lenin’s ideas by 1901, long before meeting him, and he favored Lenin’s tactic of a tightly knit group of highly committed individuals who were prepared to use whatever methods were necessary to bring about the kind of world they wanted. This tactic had in turn been taught by a man admired among revolutionaries – publicist Peter Tchachev. Another, Mikhai Bukunin, who wrote one of the books handed to young Soso, called “The Revolutionary’s Catechism”, said that revolutionaries “must aggravate the miseries of the common people”, so as to exhaust their patience and incite them to rebel. 8.

As a young  man, Soso renamed himself Koba, after a revolutionary character he read about who became his hero. The book echoed a Bukaninist maxim; “Let us unite with the savage world of the violent criminal – the only revolutionary in Russia” 9.

For years Stalin was constantly on the run from the police. His activities included bank robberies and many murders in order to raise funds for the Party 10.




In April 1922, five years after the October Revolution, Lenin appointed Stalin as the general secretary of the secretariat. Stalin was already on two committees, the Politburo and the Orgburo. The ailing Lenin was nervous about allowing Stalin to take over the party leadership, but saw no better candidate. Upon Lenin’s death, Stalin did not automatically take over, but already enjoyed considerable popularity in the Party. Stalin associated himself with the cult of Leninism which had been growing, as a way of increasing his own stature. He was a smooth talker and politician. By this time there was already a mutual distrust among the leadership, particularly between Stalin and Trotsky. After a final show down in October of 1927, several prominent members were expelled, including Trotsky and Kamenev, who were sent to distant parts of the country. By the Fifteenth Party Congress in December of 1927, Stalin was seen as the Party’s unchallenged leader 11. It was also at this congress that Stalin spoke about abandoning the New Economic Policy for a far more communistic Five Year Plan.

Stalin’s image continued to grow during his reign of terror, so that he became a cult figure in his time: in the 1930s he began to encouraged his own deification. He got to the point of considering himself as the god of a socialist religion 12.


Stalin’s daughter Svetlana, said “My father never had any feeling for religion….who had never for one moment believed in the spirit of God…” She also said that unbelief and hypocrisy among the clergy had a lasting effect on her father 13.

A book published in Moscow entitled, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin , originally designed to set him in a positive light, relates several personal testimonies which are very revealing:

“At a very early age, while still a pupil in the ecclesiastical school, Comrade Stalin developed a critical mind and revolutionary sentiments. He began to read Darwin and became an atheist. G. Glurdjidze, a boyhood friend of Stalin’s, relates:
“I began to speak of God, Joseph heard me out, and after a moment’s silence, said:
“‘You know, they are fooling us, there is no God. . . .’
“I was astonished at these words, I had never heard anything like it before.
“‘How can you say such things, Soso?’ I exclaimed.
“‘I’ll lend you a book to read; it will show you that the world and all living things are quite different from what you imagine, and all this talk about God is sheer nonsense,’ Joseph said.
“‘What book is that?’ I enquired.
“‘Darwin. You must read it,’ Joseph impressed on me”

A few pages later, another individual–also reflecting on Stalin’s youthful pursuits, added the following:

“. . .in order to disabuse the minds of our seminary students of the myth that the world was created in six days, we had to acquaint ourselves with the geological origin and age of the earth, and be able to prove them in argument; we had to familiarize ourselves with Darwin’s teachings.” 14

Notice that the last phrase was not “we had to prepare the evidence to show them”

Sahelanthropus may have inhabited the gallery forest

Some atheists are claiming that Stalin was not a believer in Darwinism. However, Stalin was an evolutionist, and only favored certain aspects of one theory of evolution over Darwin’s. As David Klinghoffer writes,

“Stalin’s version of evolution derived from the thread in that philosophical and scientific tradition that in turn came down from the earlier French evolutionist, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). Larmarck argued that characteristics acquired by an organism in its lifetime could be passed down to offspring, making environment of equal importance to heredity. (Modern evolutionary theory excludes this idea.) Hitler’s more strictly Darwinian methods, obsessed with heredity, accordingly emphasized eugenics and murder to rid society of genetic undesirables, while Stalin’s approach emphasized manipulation of the social environment, isolating deviants, sending adults and children possessing minds “diseased” as judged by anti-Soviet thinking off to the Gulag so as not to corrupt healthy minds. The subtle difference hardly mattered to the millions who were murdered in pursuit of an evolutionary nightmare…”

“This (regard for Lamarck) was not a rejection of Darwinism per se but simply of the evolutionary mechanism that Darwin personally made famous, natural selection.”




Stalin was in agreement with Marx, Engels, Lenin and Trotsky (see parts 2 and 3) when he made the link between biological evolution and their view of historical evolution:

“Evolution prepares for revolution and creates the ground for it; revolution consummates the process of evolution and facilitates its further activity” 15.

Further, Stalin says:

Marxism is not only the theory of socialism, it is an integral world outlook, a philosophical system, from which Marx ‘s proletarian socialism logically follows. This philosophical system is called dialectical materialism. Hence, to expound Marxism means to expound also dialectical materialism. Why is this system called dialectical materialism? Because its method is dialectical, and its theory is materialistic 16.

Stalin expounds on the dialectical method, then in Part II “The Materialist Theory” he introduces our old friend, the ape-man into the equation:

“What is the materialist theory?”

“Everything in the world changes, everything in life develops, but how do these changes take place and in what form does this development proceed? We know, for example, that the earth was once an incandescent, fiery mass; then it gradually cooled, plants and animals appeared, the development of the animal kingdom was followed by the appearance of a certain species of ape, and all this was followed by the appearance of man. This, broadly speaking, is the way nature developed”.

Stalin then waxes eloquent, and imagines the poor ape-man having to stare at the ground for many thousands of years (as we know all apes do, of course), until he had the good sense to start straightening up. This, according to Stalin, is what led to conscious thought:

“If the ape had always walked on all fours, if it had never stood upright, its descendant — man — would not have been able freely to use his lungs and vocal chords and, therefore, would not have been able to speak…” (or blow up balloons)…” and that would have fundamentally retarded the development of his consciousness. If, furthermore, the ape had not risen up on its hind legs, its descendant — man — would have been compelled always to walk on all fours, to look downwards and obtain his impressions only from there; he would have been unable to look up and around himself and, consequently, his brain would have obtained no more impressions than the brain of a quadruped. All this would have fundamentally retarded the development of human consciousness.”

I have to wonder how many times this poor creature bumped his head on the branches, not being able to look up. Wouldn’t this make him lose consciousness?


As a boy “Soso” had asked his grandmother why Jesus did not draw his saber when he was arrested in the garden of Gethsemane 17. In the Bible we find that Peter did draw a sword in order to defend Jesus, but Jesus told him very sternly to put it away (Matthew 26: 47-54). Stalin’s answer to injustice or things or people he didn’t like,, in total opposition to that of Jesus Christ, was violence, and his outlook never changed.

Gellately writes that in order to “help” the peasants in the country, Stalin, like Lenin before him, “resorted to terror, but this time on a greater scale than ever” 18.

One of his first targets was the Kulak. Kulaks were former peasants in Russia who owned medium-sized farms as a result of the reforms introduced by Peter Stolypin in 1906. Stalin explained to Marxist students on December 27th, 1929, that it was time to begin “eliminating the Kulaks as a class”, and that a “new Soviet offensive” was necessary. Gellately says that this was a “declaration of war on the countryside” 19.

Stalin said:

“To launch an offensive against the Kulaks, we must make preparations, and then strike, strike so hard as to prevent them from ever rising to their feet…” 20.

Dekulakization brigades were sent into the countriside and in collaboration with the locals, engaged in excesses every bit as dreadful as anything seen since the civil war 21.

It was not just the “rich” who were being murdered or sent away, it was also the peasants who worked for them. They were sent away into the burgreoning labor camp system, or used as free labour to help the Party fulfill their quotas. As part of the operation “local priests, resented for their religion… were attacked and driven from their  homes in the dead of winter” 22.

In some districts there were too few kulaks for the brigades to fulfill the quotas, so their wrath fell on “middle income” peasants , who were barely removed from dire poverty. Medvedev writes that in many areas the authorities blows fell on low-middle income peasants, poor peasants and even farm laborers, who for various reasons refused to join the collective farms and who for the convenience of repression were given the label of “Kulak supporter” 23.

The resultant chaos played a large part in severe food shortages, but those trying to flee the famine to the cities were shot or turned back, including the peasants. One eyewitness said that the open spaces “looked like a battle field after a great war” 24.

The “Great Terror” of the 1930’s saw mass operations in several directions, as Stalin and the Bolshseviks in a state of paranoia attempted to solidify their grip, and to extinguish “counterrevolutionary” elements. Stalin and others perpetuated the idea that there was a viscious enemy within the country which had to be ruthlessly eradicated. One of those elements was national minorities living in the USSR, particularly Germans,  including those who had become Soviet citizens.  As one example, Gellately covers operation 00439, mainly aimed at Germans, carried out in 1937 and 1938. This one of many mass operations resulted in 55, 005 people being condemned by the “extrajudicial” troikas. Of those, 41, 898 were shot 25.

In 1938 there were close to 2 million peopole in the Gulags, the labor camps, and the labor colonies 26.

The Party itself was not immune to the “cleansing” operations, and was “purged” during the 30’s. Many thousands were expelled and arrested. Major show trials followed.  Even in the central committee, 94 were executed, one assasinated, four commmitted suicide, and five died naturally 27.

Roy Medvedev writes about the persecution of the Church. He says that antireligious propoganda began to gain strength at the beginning of 1928, and by the fall of that year it had developed into outright terror against the church. He writes that all religious organizations and church groups suffered, but the focus of this “struggle” was the Orthodox church 28.


In mid-1929 the Central Committee held a conference on antireligious work, followed shortly by the Second All-Union Congress of Militant Atheists. “After this congress”, writes Medvedev, “antireligious terrror increased universally”.

Dimitri Pospielovsky writes at length on the Party’s various methods of operation against the church, and against “religious superstition”. These operations relied heavily on atheistic propaganda, and continued for decades 29.

R. J. Rummel in his book “Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917” has estimated the numbers of victims of several revolutions, wars and various troubles in recent history. During the Collectivization period, between 1928- 1935, there were 11, 440, 000 victims in atheistic Soviet Russia. During the Great Terror period, 1935-1938, there were 4, 345, 000 victims. This is not including the victims of Stalin’s route to Utopia over the remainder of his life.  The total number of estimated victims in the Soviet Union between the October revolution of 1917 and 1987 is 61, 911, 000. For the slightly dyslexic that’s almost sixty-two million human beings 30.

Milovan Djilas, in his book “Conversations with Stalin”, wrote:

“Every crime was possible for Stalin, for there was not one he had not committed”.

Djilas expressed his hope for mankind, that for all time to come there would never again be the likes of Stalin, “For in him was joined the criminal senselessness of a Caligula with the refinement of a Borgia and the brutality of Ivan the Terrible” 31.


Radzinsky, relaying the writings of Stalin’s daughter in her book, “Only One Year” 32 describes Stalin’s death, which was on 5th March 1953. She and others described it as “slow and difficult”, and that:

“At the last minute he opened his eyes. It was a terrible look – either mad or angry and full of fear of death…Suddenly he raised his left hand and seemed either to be pointing upward somewhere or threatening us all…the next moment, his spirit after one last effort tore itself from his body” 33.


When someone’s background is anything but Christian, we’re expected to believe that whatever that person does or believes in his or her private life has nothing to do with how he performs in his public life. Such is the case with the communists. Atheists want us all to think that just because they believed that we all evolved from a rock and then an ape man, and that all of history reflects this evolution, and that they wanted to get this evolutionary process moving faster by “the overthrow of all existing social conditions” –  it really has nothing to do with the fact that they had no regard for the value of human life. I’ll admit that the atheist and the humanist can be every bit as good a citizen as the Christian can be. But, once that rock-to-man belief is coupled with some political ideology which goes off on a tangent, away from the mainstream of common thought and ethics, anything can happen. It’s no coincidence that Lenin, Stalin, Hitler, Pol Pot, Mao and many other mass murderers were atheists or had very low regard for religion.


Perhaps part 5: Hitler. He believed in evolution and the dream of a master race of highly evolved people. Or perhaps something much lighter…in which case, Adolph wil appear in two weeks.


1 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, with an introduction by Vladimir Pozner, The Communist Manifesto (Bantam Dell, New York, p 1992) p. 48.

2  Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 36.

3 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 38.

4 Stalin Sochineniia 13: 113.

5 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 36.

6 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York, NY., Reviedand Expanded Edition c 1989) p. 31.

7 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York NY., Revised and Expaneded edition) p. 304.

8 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition)  p. 35.

9  Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 38.

10  Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 156 – 159.

11  Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York,NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 159.

12 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York NY., Revised and Expaneded edition) p. 313 – 319.

13 Svetlana Alliluyeva Only One Year (New York, 1969) pp. 361, 362, 377).

14 E. Yaroslavsky, Landmarks in the Life of Stalin (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing house, 1940), pp. 8-12.

15 J. V. Stalin Works (Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 1954) Vol. 1, Part 1: Anarchism or Socialism?


16  J. V. Stalin Works (Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 1954) Vol. 1, Part 1: Anarchism or Socialism? p. 301.

17 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 36.

18  Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 169.

19 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 169.

20 Stalin Sochineniia Vol. 12, 166 – 167.

21 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 172.

22 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 172.

23 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York NY., Revised and Expaneded edition) p. 234

24 Miron Dolot Execution By Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust (New York, 1985) p. 180.

25 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 254.

26 Doc. 30, in Bezborodov and Khrustalev, Istoria Stalinskogo Gulaga Vol. 4, 109

27 Robert Gellately Lenin, Stalin and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe (Vintage Books,New York, NY, First Ed., Aug. 2008) p. 267

28 Roy Medvedev Let History Judge: The Origins and Consequences of Stalinism (Columbia University Press, New York NY., Revised and Expanded edition) p. 228.

29 Dimitri V. Pospielovsky A History of Marxist-Leninist Atheism and Soviet Anti-Religious Policies (St. Martin’s Press, New York, NY) Vol. 1.

30 R. J. Rummel Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 (Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, N.J. 1990) chapters 4 and 5.


31 Milovan Djilas Conversations With Stalin (Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., First Edition, c 1962) p.187.

32 Svetlana Alliluyeva, Only One Year, translated by Paul Chavchavadze, NY, Harper & Row, 1969

33 Edvard Radzinskii Stalin: The First In-Depth Biography (Doubleday, New York NY 1996, First Edition) p. 576.